Friday, January 11, 2019

A Tale of Two Flaviviruses


Virology in 2016 and 2017 saw a great deal of attention paid towards Zika Virus (ZIKV) outbreaks in the Americas. In addition, recent introduction of West Nile virus to the Americas as of 1999 sees the field of virology and infectious disease adapting to the potential for these infections in a wide variety of patient populations. Work very recently published by Robinson, Enriquez, and Ho synthesized a body of work surrounding the development of WNV and ZIKV in the Americas, specifically as infection and standards of treatment apply to Solid Organ Transplantation (SOT) patient populations. Given the knowledge that WNV and ZIKV are both flaviviruses, the analysis of incidence and epidemiology involved in flavivirus infection in SOT patients is essential to the development of therapeutic techniques for these types of infections. This review is novel in that it holistically reviews cases of flavivirus infection in SOT, where donor-derived disease and increased disease severity are continuing to be fully understood in immunocompromised patient populations. In analyzing these two sources of disease within the same context as a viral family, insight was gained as to the progress that has been made in the field regarding SOT infectious disease as a whole and suggests potential next steps for development of diagnostics and treatments for flaviviruses. As clinical and scientific understanding of this virus develops, it is essential for practicing physicians to continue to develop protocols to protect SOT and immunocompromised patients, in addition to driving research into the afflictions that do not have optimal treatments. Work continues to try and develop vaccines and treatments for the diseases caused by these flaviviruses, and has resulted in many new types of Immunoglobulin based assays for the detection of viral titers in patients. This work is especially important for the immunocompromised patient and SOT communities, as limited data suggests that both WNV and ZIKV infections become exaggerated and more dangerous for these populations. Future work also continues to focus on the treatment of mosquito vectors to prevent their spread of the disease, with researchers finding new ways to either combat the disease within the mosquito or to combat the mosquito itself, much like the work of those combatting Yellow Fever in the late 1800's.
Source: Robinson ML, Enriquez K, Ho DY. A Tale of Two Flaviviruses: West Nile Virus and Zika Virus in Solid Organ Transplantation. OBM Transplantation 2019;3(1):32; doi:10.21926/obm.transplant.1901038.

~Kyle Enriquez

21 comments:

luci amber said...

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Jason Ruth said...

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Tasha Moore said...


I am bold enough among many others to state that there is now a potent cure to this sickness but many are unaware of it. I discovered that I was infected with the virus 3 months ago, after a medical check-up. My doctor told me and I was shocked, confused and felt like my world has crumbled. I was dying slowly due to the announcement of my medical practitioner but he assured me that I could leave a normal life if I took my medications (as there was no medically known cure to Herpes). I went from churches to churches but soon found that my case needed urgent attention as I was growing lean due to fear of dying anytime soon. In a bid to look for a lasting solution to my predicament, I sought for solutions from the herbal world. I went online and searched for every powerful trado-medical practitioner that I could severe, cos I heard that the African Herbs had a cure to the Herpes syndrome. It was after a little time searching the web that I came across one Dr Itua(A powerful African Herbal Doctor), who offered to help me at a monetary fee. I had to comply as this was my final bus-stop to receiving a perfect healing. My last resolve was to take my life by myself, should this plan fail. At last it worked out well. He gave me some steps to follow and I meticulously carried out all his instructions. Last month, to be precise, I went back to the hospital to conduct another test and to my amazement, the results showed that negative,Dr Itua Can As Well Cure The Following Desease…Cancer,Hiv,Herpes, Hepatitis B,Liver Inflammatory,Diabetis,Fribroid,,Non Hodgkin Lymphoma,Skin Cancer,Uterine Cancer,Prostate Cancer Dercum,Hpv,Weak Erection,Infertility,fibromyalgia,Get Your Ex Back,Als,SYPHILLIS,Genetic disease,Epilepsy, Parkinson's disease..You can free yourself of this Herpes virus by consulting this great African Herbal Doctor via this e-mail: drituaherbalcenter@gmail.com or call and whatsapp him on +2348149277967 He will help you and his herb medication is sure. he has the cure on all disease .You can talk to me on INSTAGRAM..tashamoore219.

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stacey conor said...

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Voodoo home said...

I want to give a testimony about my HIV virus that was cured by a great spell caster Dr voodoo. Since last 4 months I have being a HIV AID patient. I never think I live long again and am so grateful about Dr voodoo who cured my HIV AIDS last week. I was in a great pain so I told one of my best friends; and she told me that there is a spell caster that can cure my HIV she read someone testimony from a website on-line on how Dr voodoo cure her from HIV AIDS and she also collected Dr voodoo website and email. She gave me Dr voodoo email, I emailed him he talked to me and he perform the necessary rituals and he told me that after two weeks I should go for a test. Which I did, when the doctor told me that am now a HIV negative I couldn't believe myself I went to see another doctor the result was still the same contact DR voodoo via email voodoospelltemple66@gmail.com You can also call him or add him on WhatsApp +2349061243458 check out is website also Drvoodooherbalworld.blogspot.com

sophia lee said...

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lawson morgan said...

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Boante Ray said...

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M. Mary said...

My boyfriend and I met three years ago on herpes dating site so we discovered we are +ve from the beginning of our relationship, that we both had genital herpes. My first outbreak was the ABSOLUTE worst experience, I was so sick. We suffered for one year plus, had constant outbreaks and then finally we decided to both respectively take Dr Utu African Traditional Herbs as advised by friends. His herb is Not much bitter or sour taste.
Dosage two times daily every day for four weeks, and honest to goodness it was a miraculous herbs. We were on it for not more than two weeks when we noticed total change. 'couldn't wait for four weeks. It was third week and five days we used the herbs. Then we went for test and was already hsv2 negative, the both of us. Neither of us have had any lesion, outbreak or symptoms till date.
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anounymous comment said...


I got diagnosed with HPV, i have be dealing with this mess for the past 8yrs. On till i got review online about natural cure people testifies how they got cured with natural treatment. And i order the treatment, after taking it for two weeks i totally got cured with herbal treatment. I'm recommending you diagnosis with HPV should get this treatment via; princetesskarachi@gmail .com , lifecentre@live.com

John Will said...

It was a wonderful experience knowing Dr Utu.
I had a sudden onset of cold sores and a new one was appearing each day. I'm on primary immunosuppressant I noticed my body just can't fight this virus on its own. After five days of treatment and no success I suspected herpes I went for test and it was confirmed. I knew I was in trouble as I've already lost appetite for everything about life I've heard of people who suffered this disease for years with no hope of solution. Imagine the pain and trauma keeping it a secret. God was my strength I met a doctor for treatment who after telling him of my ailment he advised me to start with herbal medicines if I wish to live longer than doctors estimate He taught me the strong effects of plants on animals and how possible nature have perfected itself. He gave me Dr Utu's contact. I contacted him immediately, I told him the whole history which he gave me satisfactory answer. I purchased and started using his herbs as he had directed. This medication was far amazing that within 24-48 hrs the blisters were crusting over. The swelling and redness was decreasing as well. I continued on dosage as prescribed one week later I noticed total comfort in my body system, I informed the doctor who advised me to continue medication till later end I was on four weeks herpes medication which I completed before going for test. I went for herpes test and then again back to my doctor who confirmed me herpes negative it was really like a dream. What a relief! I thank you greatly Dr Utu for giving me back my life I'm the happiest man on earth. Reach Dr Utu directly via email: drutuherbalcure@gmail.com. TO CURE YOUR DISEASES WITH HERBAL MEDICINES

Michelle Buff said...

I was so lucky when i was cured from HSV 1&2 Disease after my friend contacted Dr DADA and he was cured from HSV 2 within 2 weeks after taking his herbal medicine, through my friend who was cured by Dr DADA, my friend get me Dr DADA email address:(drdadaspellhome7@gmail.com)  i contacted Dr DADA and he assured me that i will be cured when i receive his medicine and used it, less than 4 days i get his medicine and used it and in 2 weeks as instructed and then went to test myself in the clinic my results came negative. Dr DADA has solution for HIV AIDS. HEPATITIS B. DIABETES. CANCER And more. Email: (drdadaspellhome@hotmail.com) or Call/What app: +2348158568638

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ava noah said...

Am here to appreciate Dr Emmanuel for using his herbal medicine to cure my herpes virus. since 3 years now I have been living with this virus and it has been giving me challenges, I was so perplexed cause i have been taking several drugs to be cured but all of my effort was in vain,one morning i was browsing through the internet then i saw several testimonies about Dr. Emmanuel curing people from Herpes virus and immediately i contacted Dr. Emmanuel on his email: nativehealthclinic@gmail.com, i told him about my troubles and he told me that i must be cured, gave me some instructions and which i rightly followed. so he prepared a herbal medicine for me and sent it to me which i used for 2 weeks and everything was like a dream to me and my Herpes virus was totally gone, why don't you contact him today and be free from your diseases because he is very good and honest Doctor. contact him via email; nativehealthclinic@gmail.com or whatsApp/Call him on +2348140073965 God bless him for me.he also cured HIV/AID,genital ,wart,COPD,cancel and all kind of disease and virus

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