Wednesday, September 19, 2018

VITN Blog #3: Hepatitis A Outbreak


When we often speak of viruses in class, the infections we talk about occur mostly in other countries. If they do happen in the United States, it is often the effect of lack of vaccination. However, according to a recent report on promail.org, Hepatitis A has hit the United States.

The Kentucky Cabinet for Health and Family Services Department for Public Health has begun warning citizens about a Hepatitis A outbreak that started on November 2017 in Kentucky. As of September 8, 1701 people have turned up with Hepatitis A infection, 952 people have been sent to the hospital, and 14 people have died. Those who are mainly affected include drug users and homeless individuals. The virus has been passed from personal contact. It is thought that this outbreak has caused infections in Utah and California. The Jefferson county has had 603 infected individuals, the most of any Kentucky county.

Patients are being given supportive care. There is a vaccine for Hepatitis A. Symptoms include fever, abdominal pain, jaundice, and gray stool.

For more information: https://chfs.ky.gov/agencies/dph/Pages/default.aspx
https://chfs.ky.gov/agencies/dph/dehp/idb/Pages/Hepatitis%20A%20Outbreak.aspx
https://chfs.ky.gov/agencies/dph/dehp/idb/PublishingImages/Pages/Hepatitis%20A%20Outbreak/Hepatitis%20A%20General%20Information.pdf

-Kyle Feliciano

VITN Blog Post #3: Zika as a Potential Treatment for Glioblastomas

Glioblastomas, a malignant tumor affecting the brain or spine, are currently incurable. Many die each year from the fatal brain cancer. The recurrence is high, meaning that the cancer has a high tendency to return even after surgery, radiation and chemotherapy. Currently, researchers are naming glioblastoma stem cells (GSCs) as the culprit for this recurrence. However, a team of international researchers has made an interesting hypothesis: zika could target these GSCs.

The outbreak of Zika led to the important discovery of microcephaly in newborns. This is because the virus neural progenitor cells in the fetus of infected mothers. The hope was to have the zika virus specifically target the GSCs because they have similar properties to the cells that the zika virus attacks naturally. A study done on mice models showed that the virus could kill GSCs without posing much harm to differentiated normal brain cells.

Then, the team went on to determine if there was a way for the zika virus to be used without damaging the human body. A live attenuated zika vaccine called ZIKV-LAV was created by researchers at the University of Texas Medical Branch and has shown to fight infection while being harmless to its host. To see if the vaccine could work against GSCs, they inserted both GSCs from humans and the virus into mouse models. Mice that only got the virus developed tumors, while the onset of tumor development in mice that got GSCs and the virus was significantly delayed. This shows promise in the field of oncology. Hopefully, with further research, we could take something that’s bad and turn it into something life-saving.

Read more here:

  • Noah Magbual

VITN Blog Post #3: “CRISPR screen identifies gene that helps cells resist West Nile, Zika viruses”

As we approach the end of SoCo, it is such a heartwarming feeling to read the news and actually be able to make connections to things I have learned from class or speaker presentations. After briefly discussing CRISPR-Cas9 gene editing technology and making my virus model that represented the Flaviviridae family, I found an article about a team at UT Southwestern that used CRISPR to identify the IF16 gene that can potentially inhibit flaviviruses. While other groups have already located genes that are present during an infection, this is the first time that an inhibitor has been found using CRISPR. These genes have been researched in cell cultures using liver cells and confirmed using kidney and epithelial cells. Other inhibitor proteins have been identified by the same lab, but the ability to use CRISPR increases precision and opens doors for more research into how we could possibly treat or prevent transmission of diseases like Zika and yellow fever. All very exciting research, especially as we see West Nile fever spread through the United States and yellow fever rampage through Brazil.




- Jen Vu

VITN Blog Post #2: “Expedited Partner Therapy: Combating Record High Sexually Transmitted Infection Rates”

Sexually transmitted infectious (STIs) have been on the rise in the United States in the past couple years, evident from the 1.59 million new cases in 2016. After hearing about the HIV crisis in Zimbabwe from Caroline Maposhere, learning about stigma around AIDS from Dr. Michael Gottlieb, and listening to my peers present about PrEP and health disparities, I was inclined to learn more about why we aren’t doing better in this day and age. This article from the the American Public Health Association discusses the merits and challenges associated with Expedited Partner Therapy (EPT). In their words, EPT is “a health care practice that allows providers to give a prescription or medications to the heterosexual partners of patients diagnosed with chlamydia or gonorrhea without testing or examining the partner.”


EPT is currently available in 41 states and Washington D.C. However, not many patients know about this treatment, and it is typically not a subject that most physicians bring up voluntarily. EPT is championed for it ability to literally reach a wider audience of people without needing to bring people in to a physical office. Although there are pros to this, it perpetuates existing stigma around sexual health and contraceptives. Furthermore, there is still hesitation to talk about sexual activity and preferences in an empowering and non-awkward way, especially with a health-care provider. Likewise, some physicians may be uncomfortable prescribing without seeing the patients. Although this method has been thought to be cost-effective because it reduces costs of clinic visits, many insurance companies do not cover EPT. Partners may not be pay for their own prescriptions if it is not covered. If we were to make this work in the future, it would require more effort from all parties involved to enforce implementation.


Read the original publication here:



- Jen Vu

VITN Blog #3: ELISA and RT-qPCR as diagnostic tools for Zika

The Zika epidemic that spread like wildfire in Central and South America produced extraordinary levels of panic among local populations and anxiety in nearby countries such as the United States. Some athletes even withdrew from the 2016 Olympic Games held in Rio de Janeiro for fear of contracting the virus. Zika infection does not generally leave long-lasting effects in either men or women not trying to conceive, but the most devastating images to emerge from the epidemic were of infants born to Zika-infected mothers. Many suffer from microcephaly, i.e. small head size due to abnormal brain development. These children often experience severe developmental delays, but one symptom not as acknowledged in the popular media is epilepsy, a seizure disorder.

This study examined the prevalence and severity of epilepsy in a cohort of infants with congenital Zika infection. About two thirds of infants did have some type of epilepsy, and the authors went on to characterize the seizure type, use of antiepileptic drugs, and electroencephalographic features. One notable characteristic was that the infants’ epilepsy was usually early-onset and drug-resistant, indicating a systemic and persistent disruption of normal brain function due to viral action on the growing fetus. However, I was most interested in the two techniques the authors used to diagnose Zika infection in the serum and cerebrospinal fluid samples obtained from the infants and their mothers: enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for IgM antibody capture and quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) assay for detecting Zika’s genome.

In class, we discussed the distinction between IgM, IgG, and IgA antibodies. IgM are found as a result of recent infection, IgG as a result of previous exposure to disease or vaccination, and IgA in bodily secretions (live, attenuated vaccine produces IgA while inactivated vaccine does not). Dr. Ben Pinsky had briefly summarized the mechanism of ELISA: place antigen on a solid support, add the patient serum, add an antibody conjugated to an enzyme, add the substrate of that enzyme, and measure the resulting color change. ELISA is a common protocol in serology, which seeks to identify antibodies in the blood serum. Dr. Pinsky mentioned several problems with this approach, including cross-reactivity between antibodies to related viruses (e.g. Zika and another member of the Flaviviridae family) and the persistence of IgM antibodies past the acute period of infection. Therefore, IgM antibody capture cannot be used on its own for diagnosis of Zika.

We are all familiar with the basic biochemical principles underlying PCR, which uses DNA as its starting material. RT-qPCR exploits these same rules, but with RNA instead. Under the Baltimore classification, Zika virus is in Group IV: it has positive-sense single-stranded RNA. As a result, PCR cannot be used for amplification of Zika’s genetic material, creating a need for RT-qPCR. Since RT-qPCR is dependent on nucleic acids, it is more specific than serology (according to Dr. Pinsky, such molecular diagnostic tools are steadily replacing older, more conventional ones like ELISA). RT-qPCR first uses reverse transcriptase to generate complementary DNA (cDNA) from the viral RNA template. That cDNA can then undergo PCR for amplification and further analysis such as sequencing for identification of Zika. Interestingly, RT-qPCR can be performed in just one step (in which reverse transcription and PCR occur in a single tube) or two, in which the reactions are separate. The number of hours that RT-qPCR takes varies depending on the chosen assay, but its analytical sensitivity makes it extraordinarily valuable for diagnosis.

The use of these two diagnostic techniques in this study demonstrates how important technological advances are to scientific investigation, especially in the field of infectious disease.

Study: “Epilepsy Profile in Infants with Congenital Zika Virus Infection” (https://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMc1716070)

- Panos Vandris

Tuesday, September 18, 2018

Herpes Virus and Nano-particles: The Perfect Storm

Approximately 80% of the human adult population has been infected
or will be infected with some strain of herpes virus. Although most of
these cases are asymptomatic or only mildly symptomatic, the disease
can actually be lethal for a small portion of the population such as those
with compromised immune systems like babies or people with advanced
HIV infection. However a recent paper that was published within the
scientific community brings to light a new concern when it comes to herpes
virus.


Persistent herpes virus infection is caused by an infection that becomes
latent in a person, usually thanks to immune system response to keep the
virus at bay. Typically this isn’t of much concern, however, when this is combined
with the inhalation of environmental nano-particles, the infection can become
reactivated leading to an acute infection which can cause severe tissue damage
or result in chronic lung disease such as idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.


What are these nano-particles that the researchers talk about? They are
combustion derived nano-particles that you can find in diesel exhaust, diesel soot,
or welding fumes as a few examples. There is also a growing concern about
nanotechnology and how nano-particles produced from nanotechnology could affect
human health as it becomes more prevalent.

According to the research, several exposures of latent virions in the lung to
nano-particles restores a molecular signature characteristic for acute viral infection.
In other words, these nano-particles are inducing viral replication. Researchers still
don’t know what the exact mechanisms for this are, but they are working to decipher
it and hopefully develop preventive measures against a possible surge of complicated
herpes virus infections we could be seeing in the future.

-Renata Starbird

http://blogs.biomedcentral.com/on-health/2018/09/18/exposure-nanoparticles-can-activate-herpesvirus-viruses-lungs-winner-particle-fibre-toxicology-best-paper-award-2018/

Monday, September 17, 2018

VITN Blog Post #3: Vampire Facial May Expose Clients to HIV

Health officials in New Mexico have advised clients of a 'vampire facial' to get HIV, HBV, and HCV testing after unsafe practices were revealed at a spa in Albuquerque. A vampire facial involves drawing a person's blood, placing it into a centrifuge and extracting the plasma, and injecting the plasma into the face with a micro-needling pen. The plasma contains nutrients, proteins, and growth factors that stimulate the skin and provides extra collagen. When the equipment lacks proper sterilization, patients can be exposed to various blood-borne diseases. Consumers can be more cautious by monitoring the sterilization/disposal methods used by doctors for micro-needles and ensuring that their spa is 'vampire certified.' Proper sanitation and disposal methods can help prevent blood-borne viruses from spreading from one patient to the other.
Avery Muniz
Viruses in the News 2018
Link: https://www.cnn.com/2018/09/13/health/vampire-facial-new-mexico-hiv-test-bn/index.html