In an article posted by ScienceDaily on January 19th, 2017, researchers at Vanderbilt University gathered data regarding cellular responses towards the H5N1 vaccine adjuvant AS03 (adjuvant system 03) by analyzing gene expression, which were seen to change even one day after vaccine administration. Neutrophil levels, although normally non-responsive to H5N1 vaccine administration, served as antigen presenting cells after the AS03 vaccine administration.
A study was completed with twenty subjects. Ten subjects received the adjuvated AS03 H5N1 vaccine and the other ten subjected received the non-adjuvated H5N1 vaccine. None of the subjects who received the non-adjuvated vaccine demonstrated serum body antibody concentrations that provided complete protection, but nine out of the ten subjects who received the adjuvated AS03 vaccine demonstrated adequate protection against H5N1. In order to measure the level of protection, RNA sequencing was conducted to determine the entire transcript of six different types of immune cells. This help to accurately determine how gene expression impacts immunity.
Results showed that there were eighty genes that demonstrated various forms of expression in three common immune cells: dendritic cells, monocytes, and neutrophils. This vaccine also showed a novel characteristic of neutrophils to present antigens. Natural killer cells also showed expression three-days post vaccine administration.
Future applications of this research include the development of personalized vaccines that can cater to the immune responses of patients towards different types of vaccines via RNA sequencing of the six target immune cells.
Check out the article here: https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2017/01/170119194521.htm
~Michelle Bach (Humans and Viruses 2016-2017)